Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety is a Future oriented State Characterized by negative effect in which a person Focus on the Possibility of Uncontrollable danger or misfortune; in contrast, fear is present-oriented state characterized by strong escapist tendencies and a surge in the sympathetic branch of the automatic nervous system in response to current danger.
A Panic attack represents the alarm response of real fear, but there is no actual danger.
Panic attacks maybe (1) Unexpected (without warning) or (2) Expected (always occurring in a specific situation). Panic and Anxiety combine to create different anxiety and related disorders. Several disorders are grouped under the heading Anxiety Disorders.
About Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
In generalized anxiety disorder, GAD, the focus is generalized to the events of everyday life. The individual with GAD is persistently anxious, after about minor items. The most frequent worries of people with GAD concern their health and daily hassles.
Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation) occurring more days than not for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance).
The person finds it difficult to control the worry. The focus of the anxiety and worry is not about having a panic attack, being embarrassed in public, being contaminated, away from home or close relatives, gaining weight or having a serious illness and is not a part of post-traumatic stress disorder. Adults with GAD typically focus on possible misfortune to their children, family health, job responsibilities and more minor things such as household chores or being on time for appointments. Children with GAD, mostly worry about competence in academic, athletic, or social performance, as well as family issues.
Adults find difficulty in sleeping.
1 Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge.
2 Being easily Fatigue.
3. Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank.
5. Muscle Tension.
6. Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless, unsatisfying sleep).
Benzodiazepines are most often prescribed for generalized anxiety, and the evidence indicates that they give some relief, at least in the short term. There is reasonable wide agreement that the optimal use of benzodiazepines is for short term relief of anxiety associated with a temporary crisis or stressful event, such as a family problem. It seem to produce both Psychological and Physical dependence, making it difficult for people to stop taking them. There is a stronger evidence for the usefulness of anti - depressants in the treatment of GAD, such as paroxetine (also called Paxil) and venlafaxine (also called Effexor). These drugs may prove to be better choice.
In the short-term, Psychological treatments seem to confer about the same benefit as drug in the treatment of GAD, But psychological treatment are more effective in the long term. In a Cognitive behavioral treatment (CST) for GAD, in which patients evoke the worry process during therapy sessions and confront anxiety provoking images and thoughts head-on. The patient learns to use cognitive therapy and other coping techniques to counteract and control the worry process.
David H. Barlow, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
V. Mark Durand, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA- ST. PETERSBERG
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