Anxiety is a Future oriented State Characterized by negative effect in which a person Focus on the Possibility of Uncontrollable danger or misfortune; in contrast, fear is present-oriented state characterized by strong escapist tendencies and a surge in the sympathetic branch of the automatic nervous system in response to current danger.
A Panic attack represents the alarm response of real fear, but there is no actual danger.
Panic attacks maybe (1) Unexpected (without warning) or (2) Expected (always occurring in a specific situation). Panic and Anxiety combine to create different anxiety and related disorders. Several disorders are grouped under the heading Anxiety Disorders.
About Specific Phobia:
In Specific Phobia, the fear is focused on a particular object or situation. Specific Phobia develops from personal or experience of traumatic event with the triggering object or situation or from misinformation. Many of us be afraid of something that is not dangerous, such as going to the dentist, or have a greatly exaggerated fear of something that is only slightly dangerous, such as driving a car or flying. Surveys indicate that specific fears of a variety of objects or situations occur in a majority of the population.
1. Fear of seeing blood.
2. Receiving Injection.
3. Getting Injuries.
4. Anxiety about Enclosed space.
5. Fear of heights.
6. Fear from Flying.
7. Fear of elevator.
8. Fear of Plane.
9. Fear of water.
10. Fear of animals.
Most specific phobias began with the unusual traumatic events. For example, if you were bitten by a dog, you would develop a phobia of dogs, but this is not always the case. This is not to say that traumatic conditioning experiences do not result in subsequent phobic behavior. Almost every person with a choking phobia has had some kind of a choking experience. An individual with claustrophobia gets trapped in an elevator for an extraordinarily long period. These are examples of phobias acquired by direct experience, where real danger or pain results in an alarm response (a true alarm). This is one way of developing a phobia and there are at least three others: experiencing a false alarm (panic attack) in a Specific situation, observing someone else experience severe fear (vicarious experience), or under the right conditions, being told about danger.
Treatment of phobias is rather straight forward, with a focus on structured and consistent exposure - based exercises. Most patients who expose themselves gradually to what they fear must be under therapeutic supervision. Individuals who attempts to carry out the exercises alone often attempts to do too much too soon and end up escaping the situation, which may strengthen the phobia. It is interesting that in these cases not only does the phobia disappear but in blood phobia the tendency to experience the vasovagal response at the sight of blood also lessens considerably. These treatments ' rewire' the brain.
David H. Barlow, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
V. Mark Durand, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA- ST. PETERSBERG
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