Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder is a persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress for the person affected and/or for others and may cause difficulties with work and relationships. DSM-5 divides the personality disorders into three groups or clusters. The cluster division is based on resemblance. Cluster A is called the odd or eccentric clusters; it includes paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. Cluster B is the dramatic, emotional or erratic cluster; it consists of antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C is the anxious or fearful cluster, it includes avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
People diagnosed with the cluster B personality disorders - Antisocial, borderline, histrionic and narcissistic- all have behaviors that have been described as a dramatic, emotional, or erratic.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
People with antisocial personality disorder are among the most puzzling of the individuals. Rober Hare, a pioneer in the study of people with Psychopathy, a subgroup of persons with antisocial personality disorder, describes them as “social predators who charm manipulate and ruthlessly plow their way through life, leaving a broad trail of broken hearts shattered expectations and empty wallets. Completely lacking in conscience and empathy, they selfishly take what they want and do as they please, violating social norms and expectations without the slightest sense of guilt or regret.”
- Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors.
- Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead.
- Irritability and aggressiveness.
- Reckless disregard for Safety of Self or others.
- Consistent irresponsibility.
- Lack of remorse, mistreated.
Psychologically it is difficult for such personality to a learn avoid punishment. They are indifferent to concerns of others.
There is genetic vulnerability combined with environmental influences. They have high fear threshold and abnormally low cortical arousal.
Social / cultural
Socio Economic disadvantage. Inconsistent parental discipline, Stress/ exposure to trauma and criminality age causes.
Treatment for Antisocial personality disorder is seldom successful. Prevention through preschool programs and parent training is suggested it the disorder caught early. DSM-5 provides a separate diagnosis for children who engage in behaviors that violate society norms: Conduct disorder. It provides for the designation of two subtypes; childhood Onset type [the onset of at least one criterion characteristic of CD prior to age 10 years] or adolescent-onset type [the absence of any criteria characteristic of CD prior to age 10 years]
SYMPTOMS for CONDUCT DISORDER
Aggression to people and Animals
- Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others.
- Often initiates Physical fights.
- Has used a weapon [e.g. a bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, gun] that can cause serious physical harm to others.
- Has been physically cruel to people.
- Has been physically cruel to animal.
- Has stolen while confronting a victim [e.g., mugging, purse snatching, extortion, armed robbery].
- Has forced someone into sexual activity.
Destruction of Property
- Has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious damage.
- Has deliberately destroyed other's property [other than by fire setting].
Deceitfulness or Theft
- Has broken into someone else's house, building or car.
- Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligation [i.e, "cons" others].
- Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim [e.g. Shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery]
Serious violation of Rules
- Often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 years.
- Has son away from home overnight at least twice while living in the parental or parental surrogate home, or once without returning for a lengthy period.
- Is often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years.
David H. Barlow, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
V. Mark Durand, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA- ST. PETERSBERG
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