Paranoid Personality Disorder
A personality disorder is a persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress for the person affected and/or for others and may cause difficulties with work and relationships. DSM-5 divides the personality disorders into three groups or clusters. The cluster division is based on resemblance. Cluster A is called the odd or eccentric clusters; it includes paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. Cluster B is the dramatic, emotional or erratic cluster; it consists of antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C is the anxious or fearful cluster, it includes avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
Three personality disorders - paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal - share common features that resemble some of the Psychotic symptoms seen in Schizophrenia.
Paranoid personality Disorder
People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others, without any justification. They assume other people are out to harm or trick them; therefore, they tend not to confide in others.
- Suspects without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming or deceiving him/her.
- Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
- Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her.
- Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meaning into benign remarks or events.
- Persistently bears grudges i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries or slights.
- Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
- Has recurrent suspicious, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.
a. Thoughts and people are malicious, deceptive and threatening.
b. Behavior based on mistaken assumption about others.
(a) Possible but unclear link with Schizophrenia.
Social / Cultural
a. Outsiders may be susceptible because of unique experiences e.g. prisoners, refugees, people with hearing impairments, and the elderly.
b. Parent’s early teaching may influence.
Treatment for Paranoid Personality Disorder is difficult because of client's mistrust and suspicion. Cognitive work to change thoughts. Very low success rate this disorder.
David H. Barlow, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
V. Mark Durand, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA- ST. PETERSBERG
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