The disorders of sexual arousal cause distress or impairment to the individual or cause personal harm, or the risk of harm to others are called Paraphilic Disorders.
- In Fetishistic Disorder, person is sexually attracted to nonliving objects. There are almost as many types of fetishes as there are objects, although women's undergarments and shoes are popular Fetishistic arousal is associated with two classes of objects or activities:(1) an inanimate object or (2) a source of specific tactile stimulation, such as a rubber, particularly clothing made out of rubber. Shiny black plastic is also used. Most of the person's sexual fantasies, desires focus on this object. A third source of attraction is a part of the body, such as the foot, buttocks, or hair. In some extreme cases men insert a pencil or the arm of an eyeglass frame inside their urethra to increase the intensity of ejaculation during masturbation.
- Some have been the victim of Frotteusistic disorder in a large city, typically on a crowded subway or bus. In this situation, women have been known to experience more than the usual jostling and pushing from behind. It's a male with a Frotteuristic arousal pattern rubbing against female until he is stimulated to the point of ejaculation. Because of the crowded surroundings, the victims cannot escape easily, the Frotteuristic act is usually successful.
Voyeuristic Disorder is the practice of observing, to become aroused, an unsuspecting individual undressing of naked. Exhibitionistic Disorder, by contrast, is achieving sexual arousal and gratification by exposing genitals to unsuspecting strangers. Anxiety actually increases arousal under some circumstances.
- In Transvestic Disorder, sexual arousal is strongly associated with the act of (or fantasies of) dressing in clothes of opposite sex, or cross-dressing.
- Both Sexual Sadism and Sexual Masochism are associated with either inflicting pain or humiliation or suffering pain or humiliation, and becoming Sexually Aroused is specifically associated with violence and injury in these conditions.
- Perhaps the most tragic sexual deviance is sexual attraction to children, or young adolescents generally aged 13 year or younger, called pedophilia Individual with this pattern of arousal may be attracted to male children, female children of both.
If the children are the person's relatives, the pedophilia takes the form of incest. Although pedophilia and incest have much in common, victims of pedophilic disorder tend to be young children and victims of incest tend to be girls beginning to mature physically. It is demonstrated that incestuous males are in general, more aroused by adult women than are males with Pedophilic disorder who tend to focus exclusively on children. Child molesters often rationalize their behavior as “loving” the child or teaching the child useful lessons about sexuality. The child molester almost never considers the psychological damage the victim suffers, yet these interactions often destroy the child's trust and ability to share intimacy. Child molesters rarely gauge their power over the children, who may participate in the molestation without protest yet be frightened and unwilling.
CAUSES of PARAPHILIC DISORDER
The development of paraphilic disorders is associated with deficiencies in consensual adult sexual arousal deficiencies in consensual adult social skills, deviant sexual fantasies that may develop before or during puberty, and attempts by the individual to suppress thoughts associated with these arousal pattern. The causes include early sexual fantasies reinforced by masturbation and extremely strong sex drive combined with uncontrollable thought processes.
Psychological treatments of these disorders are only modestly effective at best among individuals who are incarcerated, but somewhat more successful in less severe out patient
- Covert Sensitization: Repeated mental Reviewing of aversive consequences to establish negative associations with behavior
- Relapse Prevention: Therapeutic preparation for coping with future situations.
- Orgasmic reconditioning: Pairing appropriate stimuli with masturbation to create positive arousal patterns.
- Medical: Drugs that reduce testosterone to suppress sexual desire: fantasies and on return when drugs are stopped.
David H. Barlow, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
V. Mark Durand, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA- ST. PETERSBERG
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