Mood Disorders are among the most common Psychological Disorders, and the risk of developing them is increasing worldwide, particularly in younger people. Mood disorders involve disabling disturbances in emotion-from the sadness of depression to the unrealistic elation and irritability of mania. Mood disorders in children are fundamentally similar to mood disorders in adults.
About Bipolar Disorders:
People with Bipolar Disorder live on an unending emotional roller Coaster. Majerly it is of two types. (i) Bipolar I and (ii) Bipolar II.
Criteria for Bipolar II is a major Depression with mild Mania.
During Depressive Phase the person may:
1. Loose all interest in pleasurable activities and friends.
2. Feel worthless, helpless and hopeless.
3. Have trouble concentrating.
4. Lose or gain weight without trying.
5. Have trouble sleeping or sleep more than usual.
6. Feel tired all the time.
7. Feel Physical aches or pains that have no medical cause.
8. Think about death or attempt Suicide.
During Manic Phase, the person may:
1. Feel extreme pleasure and joy from every activity.
2. Be extraordinary active, planning excessive daily activities.
3. Sleep little without getting tired.
4. Develop grandiose plans leading to reckless behavior, unrestrained buying spree, sexual indiscretions, foolish business investments etc.
5. Have "racing thoughts” and talk on and on.
6. Be easily irritated and distracted.
We have seen that major disruptions our interpersonal relationships are an important category of stresses that can trigger bipolar disorder. In addition people with few, if any, important social relationships seem at risk for developing and sustaining mood disorders. Interpersonal Psychotherapy A variety of treatments, both Biological and Psychological, have proved effective for the bipolar disorder, at least in the short term. For those individuals who do not respond to antidepressant drugs or psychosocial treatments a more dramatic physical treatment, Electroconclusive Therapy, is sometimes used. Two Psychological treatments - Cognitive therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy seem effective in treating Depressive Disorders.
A number of medications are effective treatments for depression. Four basic types of antidepressant medications are used to treat depressive disorders: Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - Citalopram (celexa), Escitalopram. (Lexapro), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoxamine (Luvox),Paroxetine (Paxil), Sertraline (zoloft); Mixed reuptake inhibitors - Bupropion (Wellbutrin), Venlafaxine (Effexor), Duloxetine (Celexa);Tricyclic Antidexpressants - Imipramine (Tofranil), Amitriptyline (Elavil) ; Monoamine Oxidase( MAO). Another type of antidepressant drug, lithium Carbonate, is most often referred to as a mood-stabilizing drug.
AIL Antidepressants have side effects. It is advised to use only with the Medical Professional suggestions.
When someone does not respond to the medication (or in an extreme severe case), it is advised to go for Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), the most controversial treatment for Psychological disorders after Psychosurgery. Beck's Cognitive Therapy grew directly out of his observations of the role of deep-seated negative thinking in generating depression. Clients are taught to examine carefully their thought processes while they are depressed and to recognize “depressive” errors in thinking. Treatment involves cognitive errors and substituting less depressing and (perhaps) more realistic thoughts and appraisals.
(IPT) focuses on resolving problems in existing relationships and learning to form important Interpersonal Relationships.
David H. Barlow, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
V. Mark Durand, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA- ST. PETERSBERG
2. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: 9TH EDITION
Davision G.C., Neale, J.M. and Kring, A.M.
3. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
Allov. L.B.: Riskind, J.H. and Manos, M.J.
4. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY AND MODERN LIFE. NY: Harper and Collins. 2000
Carson. R.C. and Butcher. N.J.